June 28, 2022

Cancer may have started the fight but new research on oncology will open many doors and end the war

Cancer is a disease wherein a number of the body’s cells grow uncontrollably and spread to other body parts. More than 100 types of cancer exist. Research studies help the medical community to gather information on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

Different Types of Cancer and Symptoms

Common types of cancer are the following:

  1. Carcinoma
  2. Sarcoma
  3. Melanoma
  4. Lymphoma
  5. Leukemia
Fig. Types of cancer

Some of the common symptoms of cancer are fatigue, skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening, or redness of the skin, a flesh-colored lump that bleeds or turns scaly, a sore that does not heal, weight loss without trying, abnormal periods or pelvic pain, fever that occurs mostly at night, etc. 

Types of Cancer treatment

Surgery 

Chemotherapy 

Radiation Therapy 

Targeted Therapy 

Immunotherapy 

Stem Cell or Bone Marrow Transplant 

Hormone Therapy

Breast cancer

At the 2021 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (#SABCS21), Daiichi Sankyo Company Limited will present new breast cancer research data across its DXd ADC portfolio.

Across 33 abstracts, 14 AstraZeneca medicines from the pipeline will be featured, which will showcase the leadership of the company across different types and stages of breast cancer. 

Breast cancer is now the most diagnosed cancer worldwide with an estimated 2.3 million people diagnosed in 2020.2

Signs of breast cancer

  1. Skin irritation
  2. New lump in the breast or underarm
  3. Puckering or dimpling in the skin
  4. Nipple discharge
  5. Lymph node changes

Lung cancer

Innovent Biologics, Inc. and Eli Lilly and Company, proclaimed that the innovative PD-1 inhibitor sintilimab has been enclosed within the updated National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL) for all approved indications, as per the newest announcement from the China National Healthcare Security Administration (NHSA). The updated NRDL can formally go on Jan one, 2022.

A total of 4 approved indications for sintilimab are currently enclosed within the updated NRDL:

Three indications for sintilimab are enclosed within the NRDL for the primary time, as follows: together with pemetrexed and Pt chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of advanced or continual nonsquamous non-small cell carcinoma (nsq NSCLC) while not sensitizing EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements; together with gemcitabine and Pt chemotherapy for the first-line treatment of advanced or continual squamous non-small cell carcinoma (sq NSCLC); and together with BYVASDA (bevacizumab biosimilar injection) for the first-line treatment of unresectable or advanced hepatocarcinoma (HCC).3

 Cancer in lung

Signs of lung cancer

  1. Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum
  2. Breathing changes
  3. Chest pain
  4. Abnormal sounds in lung
  5. Fatigue

Oral cancer

To evaluate the cellular and organismal cytotoxicity of Arecanut in primary and oral cancer lines, NITTE (Deemed to be University) and the Arecanut Research and Development Foundation (ARDF) have linked a MoU with the Cocoa Marketing and Processing Cooperative Limited (CAMPCO). 

Moreover, the organismal and sub-organismal effect of Arecanut on Drosophila melanogaster will also be studied and proliferation angiogenesis and genomic instability in zebrafish embryos on exposure to Arecanut extract with standard arecoline will be compared

It will additionally establish if there is any connection between Arecanut chewing and the risk for the development of any type of oral cancer and precancerous lesions.4

Oral cancer symptoms

  1. Swellings/thickenings, lumps, or bumps
  2. Pain in the mouth
  3. Difficulty swallowing
  4. Problems with speech
  5. bleeding in the mouth

Prostate cancer

The phase III ARASENS trial, the only phase III randomized, multi-center, double-blind trial, has met its primary endpoint in investigating the role of the oral androgen receptor inhibitor (ARi) Nubeqa (darolutamide) in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). 

In the same trial, darolutamide along with docetaxel and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) significantly increased overall survival (OS) compared to docetaxel and ADT. Between treatment arms, the overall incidence of reported adverse events was similar. At an upcoming scientific congress, detailed results of the study are planned to be presented

The trial was prospectively designed to see the efficacy and safety of a combination of an ARi with docetaxel and ADT compared to docetaxel and ADT in patients with mHSPC.5

How do you know if you have prostate cancer?

  1. Trouble urinating
  2. Frequent urination
  3. Difficulty emptying the bladder completely.
  4. Weak flow of urine
Fig. Prostate cancer

Colorectal cancer

From the Center for Drug Evaluation of China (the “CDE”) on Dec 3, 2021, Jacobio Pharma has received the Investigational New Drug (the “IND”) approval of the combination therapy of KRAS G12C inhibitor JAB-21822 and Cetuximab injection

Once the approval is received, Jacobio Pharma will start a dose-escalation and expansion, phase I/II, open-label, multi-center clinical trial in China. The trial will aim to explore the safety, preliminary efficacy, and tolerability of the combination therapy of JAB-21822 and Cetuximab in KRAS G12C mutant advanced colorectal cancer patients.

The anti-tumor activity of JAB-21822 inhibitors in colorectal cancer tumor models makes tumor regression, found by Jacobio’s preclinical study. Tumor re-growth is also delayed after the cessation of using the drug.6

Colorectal cancer symptoms

  1. A persistent change in your bowel habits
  2. Dark maroon or bright red blood in stool
  3. Constipation, diarrhea

Solid malignancies

The first patient has been dosed in a Phase 1 clinical trial of HMBD-001 in the treatment of patients with advanced HER3-expressing solid malignancies (NCT05057013), announced by Hummingbird Bioscience, and Cancer Research UK. 

HMBD-001, the first of Hummingbird Bioscience’s deep pipeline of antibody drug candidates, enters clinical trials. HMBD-001 is the only reported anti-HER3 antibody in clinical development that uses a highly differentiated mechanism of action, rationally developed using Hummingbird Bioscience’s proprietary Rational Antibody Discovery (RAD) platform.  It is designed to block the formation of all active HER3 dimers, regardless of NRG1 ligand binding or HER2/EGFR overexpression.7

Gastric cancer

For the supply and commercialization of Prestige BioPharma’s proposed trastuzumab biosimilar in selected countries in Latin America and Southeast Asia, Prestige BioPharma Ltd. and Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd are found to have entered into a binding agreement. 

Trastuzumab (HD201) is found to be a biosimilar to Roche’s Herceptin. It can be prescribed for the treatment of HER2 positive breast and metastatic gastric cancer. Trastuzumab targets human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) to perform its function.

HER2 might be overexpressed and stimulate the growth of the tumor in some types of cancer cells. Trastuzumab stops the growth of the cancer cells by selectively binding to HER2 .8

Signs of gastric cancer

  1. Nausea and vomiting
  2. Poor appetite
  3. Feeling bloated after eating
  4. Stomach pain
  5. Blood in stool

Blood-based comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) in cancer therapy

A precision medicine study undergoing in Norway is supported by Illumina, Inc. In cancer therapy selection testing, the efficacy of blood-based comprehensive genomic profiling will be assessed.  The overarching study is named IMPRESS-Norway (Improving public cancer care by implementing precision medicine in Norway) and is intended to match already-approved cancer medicines with different tumors. To measure the cost-effectiveness of implementing blood-based CGP within the public health care system is the goal of the study. 

Using CGP testing on a blood sample, a patient can be matched to the most appropriate therapy. Moreover, its impact on the tumor can be tracked at the molecular level over time. Many mutations and biomarkers can be assessed simultaneously to improve outcomes.

References:

  1. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=144439&sid=2
  2. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=144445&sid=2
  3. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=144436&sid=2
  4. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=144441&sid=2
  5. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=144432&sid=2
  6. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=144454&sid=2
  7. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=144453&sid=2
  8. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=144515&sid=2
  9. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=144541&sid=2

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