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Insomnia: A vicious cycle of emotional distress, dysfunctional cognitions, and additional sleep disruptions

Insomnia: A vicious cycle of emotional distress

“Do you have difficulty sleeping?” or “Are you having trouble falling or staying asleep?” In the sleep literature, the term “insomnia” is occasionally used to describe the presence of polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep. Insomnia is defined as the presence of long sleep latency, frequent nocturnal awakenings, prolonged periods of wakefulness during the sleep period, or even frequent transient arousals. As a result, insomnia has been viewed as both a symptom and a sign.

Types of Insomnia:

Insomnia is classified into two types: acute and chronic 

Acute insomnia typically lasts several days to weeks and is frequently triggered by a recent stressful event (physical, psychological, or interpersonal). This usually goes away when the stressor improves or is resolved, but it can progress to chronic insomnia.

Chronic insomnia is defined as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up in the early morning and unable to sleep again for at least three nights per week for at least three months.

Insomnia Symptoms:

Insomnia symptoms include a variety of sleep difficulties as well as daytime issues. Common sleep problems that may indicate the presence of insomnia include

Common causes of Insomnia:

Consequences of Insomnia:

Sleep deprivation (less than 7 hours per night) can have a variety of consequences for the cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, and nervous systems, including the following:

Treatment of Chronic Insomnia:

Chronic insomnia treatment begins with identifying and treating the underlying medical or psychological issues. The identification of behaviors that may worsen insomnia and their cessation (or reduction) would aid in its elimination. Following that, pharmacology may be tried, though the long-term use of drugs for chronic insomnia is debatable.

Non-pharmacology management strategies can also be helpful, which include the following:

Pharmacotherapeutic agents include:

Alternative medications include:


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